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Specimen Gallery Directory.
All Specimens:  Biological and Non-biological.
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Using the Directory.

This directory divides specimens into three groups:
  1. Biological Specimens: Freshwater Life.
  2. Biological Specimens: Other.
  3. Non-biological Specimens.
Active links will take you to the relevant page for each of the sections, subsections or individual specimens listed. Once there, clicking on the small (thumbnail) images will bring up larger images at a file size of 10-40 KB. Files larger than this are individually indicated. Download times are estimated on the basis of a good modem connection at about 5KB/sec.
Asterisks in the text provide additional information or a brief pop-up explanation when mouse-overed (but not if your browser is Opera or Mozilla). Try thisIt works. one.

Reference texts which have provided data for the specimen notes and confirmation for specimen identifications are listed and commented upon in the Reference archive section. Sources for diagrams linked to throughout the text are also listed. Go to the Reference Archive and hit Ctrl+f to wordsearch by title or author name for full details.
Notes on the relationship between current taxonomy and the presentation of specimens in these galleries are included in the FAQs.
Additional notes on magnification and digital image processing are at the foot of the page.

A double green bullet   Most Recent Material  indicates the most recently uploaded material.

    This facility searches only Micrographia pages.

If you wish, you may adjust your monitor for optimum viewing using this calibration strip:

Monitor Calibration Greyscale.

Adjust contrast and brightness until only the rightmost sector is pure white,
and the two leftmost sectors are only just distinguishable.

Biological Specimens.

Freshwater Life.

The creatures in these galleries are the smallest inhabitants of freshwater ponds, lakes and streams. They have mostly been photographed on colour transparency film using electronic flash, which stops their motion and captures their natural colours. More recently added images have been shot using a Kodak DC4800 digital camera.

Algae: Introduction.
Bacteria (Monera): Introduction.
Bryozoa: Introduction.
Crustacaea: Introduction.
Gastrotrichs: Introduction.

Tardigrades: Introduction.

Hydrozoa: Introduction.
Hydracarina (water mites):

Plants: Aquatic: Introduction.
Protozoa: Introduction.
Rotifers: Introduction.
Worms: Introduction.

Other Biological Specimens.   (In Preparation).

Photographed using a variety of photomicrographic and macro photography techniques. Lighting may be electronic flash, tungsten lamp or available light. Any special lighting methods used are detailed in the caption text.


  • Moulds.
    • Blakesleeanus, Bread moulds.
  • Myxomycetes.
    • Slime Moulds: plasmodial.

Plants: Terrestrial.
  • Lichens.
  • Terrestrial.
    • Fern, Onion, Pear.

  • Aquatic.
    • Chaoborus larva, Corixa (water beetle), Mayfly larva, Midge larva.
  • Parasitic.
  • Terrestrial.
    • Aphids, Blowfly, Weevil, Butterfly wing.
  • Fossil.
    • Insects etc. in Amber.

Human Biology
  • Blood.
    • Red blood cells, Blood clots, White blood cells.
  • Epidermal.
    • Cheek epithelium, Skin, Psoriasis.
  • Spermatazoa.

Non - Biological Specimens.  (In Preparation).

Any special imaging or lighting techniques used are
described in the specimen captions.

  • Crystals.
    • Ampicillin, Penicillin, Glucose.
  • ICs and Fibre Optics.
    • Memory Chips, CCD Arrays, CPUs, Fibre Optics.
  • Other.
    • Brass Filings, Gold Leaf.


Most of the specimens in these galleries have been photographed using custom-designed electronic flash equipment synchronized to Nikon F and F3 35mm cameras with motor drive. The resulting colour transparencies (Kodachrome, Ektachrome, Fuji Velvia) have been scanned in a Hewlett-Packard PhotoSmart scanner and converted to JPG image files in Paint Shop Pro 5.
More recently, transparencies have been scanned using a Canon FS-4000US scanner, and processed in Paint Shop Pro 7.
From 2001, new pictures added to the galleries have been shot using a Kodak DC4800 3.1 megapixel digital camera, also processed in Paint Shop. Here are some examples.
Various illumination systems have been used, including brightfield, darkfield and phase contrast.
Where special lighting methods or optical combinations of special interest have been used they are detailed in the caption text.

Image Fidelity.
In most cases, digital manipulation of the images is confined to:
  (a) recreating as accurately as possible the appearance of the specimen at the time of capturing the image, and
  (b) routine operations to reduce file size and speed web download.
Occasionally, distracting background detail may be removed to aid visibility of some feature. Any operations more radical than these will be detailed in the caption text.
This topic is dealt with in more detail on the Policy page.

Because of variation in monitor size and screen resolution, it is not possible to specify an absolute magnification for each image. The figure quoted is the magnification of a microscope whose circular field would just enclose the specimen image.
Where actual specimen dimensions are important, they are provided.
A more detailed account of magnification issues can be found on the Policy page.

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